Abstract. The article examines the dynamics of gender relations in Europe from the period of early capitalism to the present. It also provides an analysis of the gender regime of the labor market in modern Kazakhstan, associated with structural changes in the economy.
In modern society, the interaction of male and female appears not only as a relationship based on gender difference, but also as a relationship based on inequality of opportunities in various fields of activity. In this regard, we encounter manifestations of gender inequality in the labor market. It is pointed out that in almost every society, the workforce is divided along with age and gender, with the result that some areas of activity are entirely the prerogative of women and some of men. For example, men previously prevailed in the public sphere, which included the leading spheres of politics and economics, while women were completely excluded from the political sphere and other public spheres, remaining dominant figures only in the household and the private sphere. The transformational processes caused by the market economy put both women and men in a situation of «gender crisis».
Key words: gender relations, sex differences, gender inequality, gender labor market regime, private sphere, public sphere.