Abstract. The article deals with the problem of alienation in the worldview of the Kazakh thinkers of the XIX century. The content of the concept of “alienation” lies in the dominant nature of material social relations, which expanded the sphere of exploitation of man by man, as a result of which individuals were reduced to the state of things and became dependent on them. The authors of the article consider two types of alienation: political and moral. Political alienation is presented as the arbitrariness of the authorities in relation to the workers, as a result of which the ruling elite, endowed with unlimited power, ruthlessly exploited and robbed their subjects. The huge social gap between the feudal elite and the people, revealed in the worldview of S. Toraigyrov, led to the realization of the illusion of freedom of ordinary people who are forced to work tirelessly for the bais. Kazakh thinkers of the 19th century S. Toraigyrov, Sh. Kudaiberdiev, M. Zhumabaev and Zh. Aimauytov saw the main motives for moral alienation in the immoral feudal customs and traditions of the Kazakh steppe: kalyma, amangerism, matchmaking from the cradle, polygamy. Therefore, the issue of gaining free will and choice by a Kazakh woman in a feudal society was considered by Kazakh thinkers as a matter of reviving the entire nation.
Key words: alienation problem, political alienation, moral alienation, arbitrary power, immoral feudal customs, tragic female share.